International Baccalaureate (IB)

About IB

IB World School LogoHistory of IB

The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program is a rigorous pre-university course of studies, leading to examinations that meet the needs of highly motivated secondary school students. IB is a nonprofit educational foundation founded in the 1960’s and based in Geneva, Switzerland. It has 1,464 schools in 115 countries. There are more than 485 IB programs in North America.

IBO grew out of efforts to establish a common curriculum and university entry credential and the idealistic vision that a shared academic experience emphasizing critical thinking and exposure to a variety of viewpoints would encourage intercultural understanding and acceptance of others. The goal of education is to provide young people with the values and opportunities that will enable them to develop sound judgment and to make wise choices. This demanding and comprehensive two-year curriculum’s aim is to help students learn how to learn, how to evaluate information critically, how to analyze, how to reach thoughtful conclusions, and how to communicate.

IB Mission Statement

The International Baccalaureate® aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.

To this end the organization works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment.

These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right.

Core

The IB diploma core has 3 components:
  • Creativity, Action, and Service (CAS)
  • Theory of Knowledge (TOK)
  • Extended Essay (EE)

What is CAS?
CAS is an acronym for Creativity, Action, Service. It is a requirement for all IB diploma students to fulfill projects over 18 months of their junior and senior year that encompass each of these categories and to record and show evidence of his/her projects. It is a way for students to not only develop as individuals but to serve school and community. Visit the LHHS IB CAS website for more information or login to Managebac.

What is the extended essay?
Learn more about the extended essay in the EE Essay tab on the International Baccalaureate homepage.

Title Page includes:
Extended Essay
Candidate Number: 000429-00##
Session: May 2016
Word Count:
Title

Content Page
Essay numbered
Citation Page

Note: Your essay should not have any identifying information on it like your name, advisor's name, or school name. It should ONLY contain your candidate number.

Useful information:


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Extended Essay

IB Extended Essay Student Packet

EE Coordinator: Laurel Crossett crossettl@svusd.org

Table of Contents:
  • Deadlines
  • What is the Extended Essay
  • Role of the Student (Responsibilities)
  • Subjects
  • Resources (Research, Research Question, Formatting, Citing)
  • Rubric

*This packet can be accessed on the LHHS IB Website and much of the information in this packet is available on Managebac

Extended Essay Deadlines

DeadlineAction/Item Due
December 8Tutorial: Kick off Meeting: What is the Extended Essay? Format and Student Responsibilities

December 16

Fill out Subject Selection Google Form EE Subject and select tutorial conference with Crossett date

Winter Break

Read the subject guides sent to your email or placed on Managebac to help you narrow your choice. Highlight and annotate guides and load into the Journal on Managebac

January 3-6

Conference with Mrs. Crossett to refine subject choice and work on topic selection and research question (RQ)

January 18

EE contract due to Mrs. Crossett with supervisor signature (this means you need to ask a teacher to be your supervisor prior to this due date)

January 31

Tutorial: First Reflection Session has happened by this date and first section of the RPPF (Reflection, Planning and Progress) form is filled out with a supervisor signature and date. Type 1st reflection into the Planning and Progress form on Managebac. Begin your research: find 3 sources that you highlight and annotate. Enter them into Managebac in the EE Journal.

February 8

Continue with your research and find at least 3 additional sources that you highlight and annotate. Create a basic outline of your essay and enter the outline as well as the sources into Managebac in the EE Journal.

March 17

First 5 Pages Due with word count (share with Laurel Crossett on Google Docs)

April 19

Second 5 Pages Due with word count

May 25

EE in School Writing Day in the Library to finish 1st Draft

May 30

1st Draft Due

June 6

Interim Reflection Session has happened by this date and Interim session of the RPPF (Reflection, Planning and Progress) form is filled out with a supervisor signature and date. Type reflection into the Planning and Progress form on Managebac.

Summer

Relax and write your college apps:)

September 1

Give a printed copy of your EE to your advisor for comments, need to ask for it back before September 27th

September 28

EE in School Final Draft Editing Day in the Library

December 4

Final Draft due to Supervisor for Grading. Sign Declaration of Authenticity and submit to Turnitin (info with be shared with you at a later date)

February 2

Final Reflection-Via Voce Session has happened by this date and Final Reflection-Via Voce session of the RPPF (Reflection, Planning and Progress) form is filled out with a supervisor signature and date. Type reflection into the Planning and Progress form on Managebac.

You’re Done!! Woohoo!! Time to celebrate and prepare for your IB Exams :)

What is the Extended Essay?
  • A culmination of ALL the skills you have learned and honed in high school and the IB
  • An investigation into an area of academic interest
  • Completely designed by you
  • Written, no more than 4,000 word, formal research paper, containing an academic argument
  • Your chance to add new ideas to the world!
  • Approximately 5 to 20 sources needed, depending on subject area
  • Represents original, unaided work
  • You choose a topic that interests you, while working with a teacher as an EE Supervisor
  • Essay will be assessed externally
  • Helps prepare you for college level writing

*Universities love the fact that IB students gain experience in research based writing through the EE.

The Role of the Student
As the extended essay is an important component of the Diploma Programme, and a substantial piece of work, students need to ensure that they understand the expectations of the task and manage their time and workload effectively. The following suggestions are given as guidance to help with the process.

Students are strongly recommended to:
  • develop a Researcher’s reflection space as a planning tool
  • use the Researcher’s reflection space to prepare for reflection sessions
  • share excerpts from the Researcher’s reflection space with the supervisor during the reflection sessions
  • choose a subject, followed by a topic, and then think carefully about the research question for their essay
  • plan how, when and where they will find material and sources for their essay before deciding on the final topic and research question
  • plan a schedule for both the researching and writing of their extended essay, including extra time for delays and unforeseen problems
  • record sources as their research progresses using their Researcher’s reflection space rather than trying to reconstruct a list at the end
  • make the most of their supervision and reflection sessions by arriving prepared to discuss their work
  • have a clear structure for the essay before beginning to write
  • check and proofread the final version of their extended essay
  • make sure that the version they submit for assessment is the final version with all sources correctly and consistently referenced
  • ensure that all requirements are met.
  • Attend EE tutorial and in-school sessions
  • Meet assigned deadlines
  • Set goals and self-monitor progress
  • Work consistently over time rather than all at once when an assignment is due
  • Schedule appointments to meet with supervisors (and keep them)
  • Complete a majority of work over the winter and spring months, use the summer to work on college applications

Quick glance: the role of the student

Do:

Do not:

Choose a subject and then topic that interests you and allows you to develop and demonstrate your understanding, creativity and/or originality.

Choose a topic or research question that you have seen in exemplars and that have been done too many times before.

Develop a Researcher’s reflection space that will facilitate planning and preparation for reflection sessions.

Overlook the importance of planning and how this can contribute to success in your extended essay.

Make the most of your supervisor’s availability to guide you in the process.

Try to construct a list of references at the end of the process—be aware of the implications of poor/inadequate referencing.

Prepare for reflection sessions appropriately.

Meet all internal deadlines.

maintain a reference list as you work.

Familiarize yourself with relevant policies.

Extended Essay Subjects

Fill out the Google Form at EE Subject with your 1st choice and 2nd choice subjects.

Due: Friday 12/16/16
  • Biology
  • Business Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Design Technology
  • Economics
  • Environmental systems and societies (Interdisciplinary)
  • Film
  • Geography
  • Global Politics
  • History
  • Information technology in a global society
  • Language A1 (i.e. English literary analysis)
  • Language (B) Acquisition (written in Spanish or French)
  • Literature and Performance (Interdisciplinary)
  • Mathematics
  • Music
  • Philosophy
  • Physics
  • Psychology
  • Social and cultural anthropology
  • Sports, exercise and health science
  • Theatre
  • Visual Arts
  • World Religions
  • World Studies (Interdisciplinary)

When researching the extended essay, students should follow the steps below.

Five steps to developing a research question (RQ)

Choose a subject and topic that is of interest.
  • Deciding on a subject and topic that is of interest and in which the student is personally invested is important if their motivation is to be sustained throughout the process. The student should be able to identify, in a broad sense, what it is that they are interested in and why.
Carry out preliminary reading.
After deciding on a topic of interest students should undertake some general reading around the issue. Questions they must consider at this stage are:
  • What has already been written about this topic?
  • Was it easy to find sources of information?
  • Is there a range of different sources available?
  • Is there a range of views or perspectives on the topic?
  • What interesting questions have started to emerge from this reading?
Consider the emerging questions.
  • The student should now begin posing open-ended questions about their general topic. These questions will usually be framed using the terms “how”, “why” or “to what extent”.
Evaluate the question.
Once possible research questions have been posed they should be evaluated. This evaluation should be based on whether the research question is clear, focused, and arguable.
  • Clear: Will the reader understand the nature of my research? Will it direct the research being undertaken?
  • Focused: Will the research question be specific enough to allow for exploration within the scope of the task (that is, the number of words and time available)?
  • Arguable: Does the research question allow for analysis, evaluation and the development of a reasoned argument?
Consider research outcomes.
Once a provisional research question has been decided upon students should start thinking about the direction their research might take. This could be in terms of:
  • suggesting possible outcomes of the research
  • outlining the kind of argument they might make and how the research might support this
  • considering options if the research available is not sufficient to support a sustained argument.

Formating Your Extended Essay

Writing the extended essay

The structure of the essay is very important. It helps students to organize the argument, making the best use of the evidence collected.

There are six required elements of the final work to be submitted. More details about each element are given in the Presentation section. Please note that the order in which these elements are presented here is not necessarily the order in which they should be written.

Six required elements of the extended essay:
  • Title page
  • Contents page
  • Introduction
  • Body of the essay
  • Conclusion
  • References and bibliography

Presentation

The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look.

To help achieve this, the following formatting is required:
  • the use of 12-point, readable font
  • double spacing
  • page numbering
  • no candidate or school name on the title page or page headers.

Submitting the extended essay in the required format will help set the tone of the essay and will aid readability for on-screen assessment by examiners.

Academic honesty

Research practices when working on an extended essay must reflect the principles of academic honesty. The essay must provide the reader with the precise sources of quotations, ideas and points of view through accurate citations, which may be in-text or footnotes, and full references listed in the bibliography, which, regardless of the system used, must ensure the minimum requirements.

Producing accurate references and a bibliography is a skill that students should be seeking to refine as part of the extended essay writing process. Documenting the research in this way is vital: it allows readers to evaluate the evidence for themselves, and it shows the student’s understanding of the importance of the sources used.

Failure to comply with this requirement will be viewed as academic misconduct and will, therefore, be treated as a potential breach of IB regulations.

Effective Citing and Referencing

Go to Managebac or IB Citing for more information

What to cite

As creators/authors, we are expected to acknowledge any materials or ideas that are not ours and that have been used in any way, such as quotation, paraphrase or summary. The term “materials” means written, oral or electronic products, and may include the following.


  • Text

  • Visual

  • Audio

  • Graphic
  • Artistic

  • Lectures

  • Interviews

  • Conversations
  • Letters

  • Broadcasts

  • Maps


Basic and common knowledge within a field or subject does not need to be acknowledged. However, if we are in doubt whether the source material is common knowledge or not, we should cite!

Assessment Criteria (AKA: Rubric)
Criterion A: Focus and method

This criterion focuses on the topic, the research question and the methodology. It assesses the explanation of the focus of the research (this includes the topic and the research question), how the research will be undertaken, and how the focus is maintained throughout the essay.


LevelDescriptor of indicators
0The work does not reach a standard outlined by the descriptors below.

1-2The topic is communicated unclearly and incompletely.

  • Identification and explanation of the topic is limited; the purpose and focus of the research is unclear, or does not lend itself to a systematic investigation in the subject for which it is registered.

The research question is stated but not clearly expressed or too broad.

  • The research question is too broad in scope to be treated effectively within the word limit and requirements of the task, or does not lend itself to a systematic investigation in the subject for which it is registered.
  • The intent of the research question is understood but has not been clearly expressed and/or the discussion of the essay is not focused on the research question.

Methodology of the research is limited.

  • The source(s) and/or method(s) to be used are limited in range given the topic and research question.
  • There is limited evidence that their selection was informed.

3-4The topic is communicated.
  • Identification and explanation of the research topic is communicated; the purpose and focus of the research is adequately clear, but only partially appropriate.

The research question is clearly stated but only partially focused.

  • The research question is clear but the discussion in the essay is only partially focused and connected to the research question.

Methodology of the research is mostly complete.

  • Source(s) and/or method(s) to be used are generally relevant and appropriate given the topic and research question.
  • There is some evidence that their selection(s) was informed.

If the topic or research question is deemed inappropriate for the subject in which the essay is registered no more than four marks can be awarded for this criterion.

5-6The topic is communicated accurately and effectively.

  • Identification and explanation of the research topic is effectively communicated; the purpose and focus of the research is clear and appropriate.

The research question is clearly stated and focused.

  • The research question is clear and addresses an issue of research that is appropriately connected to the discussion in the essay.

Methodology of the research is complete.

  • An appropriate range of relevant source(s) and/or method(s) have been applied in relation to the topic and research question.
  • There is evidence of effective and informed selection of sources and/or methods.


Criterion B: Knowledge and understanding

This criterion assesses the extent to which the research relates to the subject area/discipline used to explore the research question, or in the case of the world studies extended essay, the issue addressed and the two disciplinary perspectives applied, and additionally the way in which this knowledge and understanding is demonstrated through the use of appropriate terminology and concepts.

Level

Descriptor of strands and indicators

0

The work does not reach a standard outlined by the descriptors below.

1–2

Knowledge and understanding is limited.

  • The selection of source material has limited relevance and is only partially appropriate to the research question.
  • Knowledge of the topic/discipline(s)/issue is anecdotal, unstructured and mostly descriptive with sources not effectively being used.

Use of terminology and concepts is unclear and limited.

  • Subject-specific terminology and/or concepts are either missing or inaccurate, demonstrating limited knowledge and understanding.

3–4

Knowledge and understanding is good.

  • The selection of source material is mostly relevant and appropriate to the research question.
  • Knowledge of the topic/discipline(s)/issue is clear; there is an understanding of the sources used but their application is only partially effective.

Use of terminology and concepts is adequate.

  • The use of subject-specific terminology and concepts is mostly accurate, demonstrating an appropriate level of knowledge and understanding.

If the topic or research question is deemed inappropriate for the subject in which the essay is registered no more than four marks can be awarded for this criterion.

5–6

Knowledge and understanding is excellent.

  • The selection of source materials is clearly relevant and appropriate to the research question.
  • Knowledge of the topic/discipline(s)/issue is clear and coherent and sources are used effectively and with understanding.

Use of terminology and concepts is good.

  • The use of subject-specific terminology and concepts is accurate and consistent, demonstrating effective knowledge and understanding.

Criterion C: Critical thinking

This criterion assesses the extent to which critical-thinking skills have been used to analyse and evaluate the research undertaken.

Level

Descriptor of strands and indicators

0The work does not reach a standard outlined by the descriptors below.

1-3The research is limited.

  • The research presented is limited and its application is not clearly relevant to the RQ.

Analysis is limited.

  • There is limited analysis.
  • Where there are conclusions to individual points of analysis these are limited and not consistent with the evidence.

Discussion/evaluation is limited.

  • An argument is outlined but this is limited, incomplete, descriptive or narrative in nature.
  • The construction of an argument is unclear and/or incoherent in structure hindering understanding.
  • Where there is a final conclusion, it is limited and not consistent with the arguments/evidence presented.
  • There is an attempt to evaluate the research, but this is superficial.

If the topic or research question is deemed inappropriate for the subject in which the essay is registered no more than three marks can be awarded for this criterion.

4-6The research is adequate.

  • Some research presented is appropriate and its application is partially relevant to the Research question.

Analysis is adequate.

  • There is analysis but this is only partially relevant to the research question; the inclusion of irrelevant research detracts from the quality of the argument.
  • Any conclusions to individual points of analysis are only partially supported by the evidence.

Discussion/evaluation is adequate.

  • An argument explains the research but the reasoning contains inconsistencies.
  • The argument may lack clarity and coherence but this does not significantly hinder understanding.
  • Where there is a final or summative conclusion, this is only partially consistent with the arguments/evidence presented.
  • The research has been evaluated but not critically.

7-9The research is good.

  • The majority of the research is appropriate and its application is clearly relevant to the research question.

Analysis is good.

  • The research is analysed in a way that is clearly relevant to the research question; the inclusion of less relevant research rarely detracts from the quality of the overall analysis.
  • Conclusions to individual points of analysis are supported by the evidence but there are some minor inconsistencies.

Discussion/evaluation is good.

  • An effective reasoned argument is developed from the research, with a conclusion supported by the evidence presented.
  • This reasoned argument is clearly structured and coherent and supported by a final or summative conclusion; minor inconsistencies may hinder the strength of the overall argument.
  • The research has been evaluated, and this is partially critical.

10-12The research is excellent.

  • The research is appropriate to the research question and its application is consistently relevant.

Analysis is excellent.

  • The research is analysed effectively and clearly focused on the research question; the inclusion of less relevant research does not significantly detract from the quality of the overall analysis.
  • Conclusions to individual points of analysis are effectively supported by the evidence.

Discussion/evaluation is excellent.

  • An effective and focused reasoned argument is developed from the research with a conclusion reflective of the evidence presented.
  • This reasoned argument is well structured and coherent; any minor inconsistencies do not hinder the strength of the overall argument or the final or summative conclusion.
  • The research has been critically evaluated.

Criterion D: Presentation

This criterion assesses the extent to which the presentation follows the standard format expected for academic writing and the extent to which this aids effective communication.

Level

Descriptor of strands and indicators

0

The work does not reach a standard outlined by the descriptors below.

1–2

Presentation is acceptable.

  • The structure of the essay is generally appropriate in terms of the expected conventions for the topic, argument and subject in which the essay is registered.
  • Some layout considerations may be missing or applied incorrectly.
  • Weaknesses in the structure and/or layout do not significantly impact the reading, understanding or evaluation of the extended essay.

3–4

Presentation is good.

  • The structure of the essay clearly is appropriate in terms of the expected conventions for the topic, the argument and subject in which the essay is registered.
  • Layout considerations are present and applied correctly.
  • The structure and layout support the reading, understanding and evaluation of the extended essay.

Criterion E: Engagement

This criterion assesses the student’s engagement with their research focus and the research process. It will be applied by the examiner at the end of the assessment of the essay, and is based solely on the candidate’s reflections as detailed on the RPPF, with the supervisory comments and extended essay itself as context.


Level

Descriptor of strands and indicators

0

The work does not reach a standard outlined by the descriptors or a RPPF has not been submitted.

1–2

Engagement is limited.

  • Reflections on decision-making and planning are mostly descriptive.
  • These reflections communicate a limited degree of personal engagement with the research focus and/or research process.

3–4

Engagement is good.

  • Reflections on decision-making and planning are analytical and include reference to conceptual understanding and skill development.
  • These reflections communicate a moderate degree of personal engagement with the research focus and process of research, demonstrating some intellectual initiative.

5–6

Engagement is excellent.

  • Reflections on decision-making and planning are evaluative and include reference to the student’s capacity to consider actions and ideas in response to challenges experienced in the research process.
  • These reflections communicate a high degree of intellectual and personal engagement with the research focus and process of research, demonstrating authenticity, intellectual initiative and/or creative approach in the student voice.










IB Grade Scale

IB GRADE SCALE

Each academic subject is assessed on a scale of 1 (minimum) to 7 (maximum) with 4 considered the "passing grade". In all IB subjects this grade is arrived at through internally as well as externally assessed or moderated work, throughout the two-year program with the final examination. Following are the approximate grade scales used by the IB:

IB Grade % Range Description
7 80 - 100 Excellent
6 68 - 79 Very Good
5 55 - 67 Good
4 45 - 54 Satisfactory
3 35 - 44 Mediocre
2 25 - 34 Poor
1 0 - 24 Very Poor

To achieve the IB Diploma, therefore, a student should achieve a minimum of 24 IB points (IB grade 4 in 6 subjects) with the maximum possible diploma score being 45 points (IB grade 7 in 6 subjects plus 3 bonus points). However, there are specific IB requirements which mean that a student scoring a 1 in any subject is not awarded the Diploma, even if the total score is 24 or greater. Similarly, a student scoring a 3 in one subject at HL still needs to reach a total of 12 points at HL, or an overall Diploma total of 28 points.

For this reason, for school purposes, we recommend that students aim for a total of 28 points with no failing conditions in order to be considered strong IB Diploma candidates.

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University Information

LHHS School Profile

Since 1986 Laguna Hills High School has been a proud International Baccalaureate school, dedicated to providing a rigorous program to develop students lifelong journey in the pursuit of international-mindedness. IB students, at Laguna, engage in a two year Diploma Program of which less than 5% of students in the 2016 graduating class at Laguna Hills High School (LHHS) are International Baccalaureate (IB) full diploma candidates. 10 advanced placement (AP) courses are offered at LHHS, 6 of which are also IB courses. As a full diploma candidate, students take additional exams and complete internal assessments, which are application projects of the course. In addition, students complete 150 Creativity, Action, and Service hours, write a 4,000 word extended essay, and a theory of knowledge essay which requires them to defend how we know something to be true. The only IB science course offered at LHHS is AP/IB Environmental so students that elect to do the IB program and have a full schedule are not able to enroll in all the AP sciences they would want to.

IB University Recognition